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Most interns don’t expect to learn from the Executive Director or their CEO. Fewer get to. Fewer yet get to sit through a five hour seminar on financial strategy with said executive. This is what the analysts at RVC got on Tuesday as Executive Director Peter Adams walked a group of entrepreneurs and investors through a CFO’s role in acquiring funding. From how to build adequate proformas to when to schedule your raises, the RVC Financial Class Cluster threw us into the fire of financial strategy. Sitting in with a group of investors and entrepreneurs alike, here’s a look at what we covered.

Financial Strategy

Diligence is the name of the game at RVC, with every prospective deal getting a full diligence report drafted up for RVC members. For Peter, this means believability and accuracy in the numbers. In the case of financial strategy, this means clearly defining your major milestones, your key hires, when (roughly) you’re going to raise capital, how you’re going to raise it, and the nitty gritty of each of those things. Peter’s philosophy outlines all of these alongside clear exit modeling as fundamental to a success for prospective founders. What stood out in this densely packed granola bar of venture capital knowledge? The paradox of uncertainty.

Peter made clear that a company and its founders won’t have a clear date on which they will need to raise the next round, hire that new sales star, or sit down with their dream acquirer. Peter also made clear that a company needs to have an idea of what those events look like, and while precision is not present, they key came down to milestones. Bringing on new team members shortly after key product launches, identifying the scalability inflection point, and raising enough money to pave a long enough runway are his tips for a successful financial plan.

Valuations

Part of diligence is accuracy and reasonable goals, which for valuations means a lot things. One of Peter’s highlights is that while Angels would absolutely love it if their firms all became unicorns, unless that conversion happens in a fairly tight window, doing so isn’t best for the Angel. Rather than lofty goals that may provide a bigger sum after a decade, Peter instead argues for reasonable exit strategies. Acquisition by key distributors or large firms with histories of choosing the buy side of the buy-or-build dilemma, Peter argues, can result in faster turnarounds and safer strategies for both Angels and entrepreneurs.He defines clear ranges with key milestones for reasonable early valuations, and outlined a number of models used at RVC to determine those early valuations.

Peter also faced the audience with a thought challenge. Imagine an entrepreneur trying to raise their first seed round. As the omnipotent spectator, we know this company to have a specific valuation. The question at hand? Is it better for the entrepreneur if the company gets valued at double that valuation, or 10% less than its true value? While the company would be able to raise more money at the double valuation, the answer would be the 10% reduction. Less dilution and a slower, more controlled value inflation would prove advantageous for the entrepreneur.

Proformas

Proformas are integral to the other parts of this class. They are the bridge between your vision as an entrepreneur and the funding to get you there. It is the blueprint of your business and your plans, the pictogram by which you assemble a successful company. This means years of financials, forecasts, milestones and targets, key hires, and more. Good proformas are believable proformas, argues Peter, utilizing reasonable projections and honest numbers to justify their claims and valuation. He argues that VCs and Angels alike would rather see that entrepreneurs have reasonable expectations and goals they know they can reach. In other words, be honest. If your burn is running $15k a month, don’t try to hide it. Instead, highlight where that burn is resulting in growth and is driving value. Show how you can scale back to balance if you need to slow down while seeking funding. Tell prospective investors honestly whether or not you have plans for future rounds. What milestones lead up to it? There are no ruby red slippers to take you back to the quiet farm in Kansas, so build the yellow brick road that takes you to Emerald City of successful exit, no matter how treacherous it may be.